Free forging is a processing method, referred to as free forging, which uses impact force or pressure to make the metal deform freely in all directions between the upper and lower anvil surfaces without any restriction to obtain the desired shape and size and certain mechanical properties.
The tools and equipment used in free forging are simple, universal and low cost. Compared with casting blank, free forging eliminates shrinkage cavity, shrinkage porosity, porosity and other defects, so that the blank has higher mechanical properties. Forgings are simple in shape and flexible in operation. Therefore, it is particularly important in the manufacture of heavy machinery and important parts.
Free forging is to control the shape and size of forgings by manual operation, so the forging precision is low, processing allowance is large, labor intensity is large, productivity is not high, so it is mainly used in single, small batch production.
Free forging is divided into manual free forging and machine free forging.
Manual free forging production efficiency is low, labor intensity is large, only used for repairing or simple, small, small batch of forging production.
In modern industrial production, machine free forging has become the main method of forging production, in heavy machinery manufacturing, it plays a particularly important role. The shape and size of the forging are mainly determined by the technical level of the operator.
The main equipment
Free forging equipment is divided into hammer and hydraulic press two categories. The forging hammer used in production has air hammer and steam - air hammer, some factories also use simple structure, less investment spring hammer, plywood hammer, lever hammer and wire hammer, etc. Hydraulic press is the only way to produce large forgings by deforming billets under static pressure produced by liquid.
The basic processes of free forging include upsetting, extension, stagger, punching, cutting, bending, torsion and forging welding. Upsetting: reduce the length of ingot or billet when deformation, increase its cross section, can produce impeller, gear and disc forgings. Extension: reduce the cross section of billet, increase its length, such as production shaft, forging billet, etc. Punching: Punching full through hole or half through hole in blank.
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